Government of India
RURAL LABOUR ENQUIRY REPORT ON GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL LABOUR HOUSEHOLDS
(55th Round of N.S.S.) 1999-2000
The pattern of land holding among different classes and categories of Rural Households has been discussed in this chapter. The details inter-aila enable us to know, State-wise as also at all-India level, the percentage of land-less households as well as the size of cultivated land a Rural Labour Household owns. The cultivated land has been taken as the net sown area under different crops during a given period. The land possessed includes land owned; (+) land leased in; (-) land leased out, and (+) any land held by the household which is neither owned nor leased in (i.e. encroached land, etc.).
POSSESSION OF CULTIVATED LAND :
a) All Classes :
Statement 3.1 (1) depicts the percentage distribution of All Rural Households; Rural Labour Households, and Agricultural Labour Households with & without cultivated land during the period 1999-2000. At all-India level, 59.15% of the Rural Households possessed the cultivated land. This percentage during the previous survey (1993-94) was 61.26. Among the major states, the highest percentage of households possessing cultivated land was found in Rajasthan (78.17%) followed by Uttar Pradesh (73.78 percent) and Madhya Pradesh (69.30 percent). On the other hand, Tamil Nadu showed the lowest percentage of households with cultivated land (33.02%). As compared to 1993-94 during 19999-2000 the percentage of households holding cultivated land had gone up in the case of Gujarat(53.66% to 56.18%), Haryana (48.47% to 50.74%), Kerala (30.62% to 63.86%) and Punjab (38.45% to 38.81%).
As regards Rural Labour Households, at all-India level, 41.12 percent of the households possessed the cultivated land during 1999-2000 as against 41.20 percent during the last survey. Among the major states, the highest percentage of households with cultivated land was observed in Rajasthan (62.56%) succeeded by Uttar Pradesh (56.50%) and Orissa (55.65%). The lowest percentage was found in Punjab (8.79%).
In respect of Agricultural Labour Households, 42.67% of the households at national level had the cultivated land which in comparison to previous survey (43.03%) was marginally at lower level. Position with regard to possession of cultivated land across the states was not very different from that of RLHs. In Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal the proportion of ALHs with cultivated land was less than the national level of 42.67%.
b) Scheduled Castes :
Statement 3.1(2) shows the state-wise percentage distribution of the Scheduled Castes Households with and without cultivated land. At all-India level, 44.45% of All Rural Households had cultivated land in 1999-2000 as against 47.19% in 1993-94. Amongst major states, the percentage of households with cultivated land was the highest in Uttar Pradesh (67.37%) followed by Rajasthan (65.67%). The lowest was in Punjab (10.43%).
At the national level, majority of the RLHs and the ALHs did not own cultivated land. Only 34.49% of the RLHs and 35.62% of the ALHs were reported to be in possession of cultivated land.
c) Scheduled Tribes :
The percentage distribution of Scheduled Tribes Households with & without cultivated land has been shown in Statement 3.1(3). It has been observed that among various classes, the Scheduled Tribes Households had the largest percentage of households possessing cultivated land. At all-India level, 67.89% of All Rural Households, 52.89% of Rural Labour Households and 51.63% of Agricultural Labour Households had cultivated land. The corresponding figures for 1993-94 were 69.90%; 54.07%, and 54.18%. Amongst major states the highest proportion of households with cultivated land was reported from Rajasthan (88.83%) followed by Assam (87.81%) and Orissa (71.76%). Majority of the households were without cultivated land in Bihar (50.91%), Haryana (69.69%), Maharashtra (54.77%), Punjab (93.16%) and Tamil Nadu (56.32%).
d) Other Backward Classes :
The Statement 3.1(4) presents percentage distribution of Other Backward Classes Households with and without cultivated land. At all-India level 57.30% of the Rural Labour Households were without cultivated land. Among the major states, Rajasthan (57.48%) had the highest percentage of households possessing cultivated land followed by Uttar Pradesh and Orissa with 56.52 percent households each. The lowest percentage of households with land was that of Punjab (11.35%). In respect of Agricultural Labour Households, Uttar Pradesh with 62.15% was at number one followed by Orissa (57.04%). Here also Punjab & Haryana were at the lowest level with 10.67% and 20.14% households, respectively, with cultivated land.
RURAL LABOUR HOUSEHOLDS AND OWNERSHIP OF LAND
Statement 3.2(1) shows the percentage distribution of Scheduled Castes RLHs with and without cultivated land as a proportion of total Rural Households, Rural Labour Households and Agricultural Labour Households. It reveals that at the national level, 22.14% of All Rural Households belonged to the Scheduled Castes RLHs out of which 9.84% possessed cultivated land and 12.30% were without cultivated land.
As regards Rural Labour Households, 33.81% households were of the Scheduled Castes. Among them 11.66% had the cultivated land and 22.15% were without it. Amongst major states, the proportion of the Scheduled Castes RLHs to total RLHs was the highest in Punjab (77.33%) succeeded by Uttar Pradesh (53.43%) and Haryana (51.38%). The lowest proportion was found in Assam (10.40%).
In the case of ALHs, 35.29% of the households at all-India level belonged to the Scheduled Castes of which 12.57% possessed cultivated land where as the rest (22.72%) were without it.
Similar details in respect of the Scheduled Tribes RLHs have been presented in Statement 3.2(2). At all-India level, 11.04% of All Rural Households (7.50% with land & 3.54% without land) belonged to the Scheduled Tribes category. Among the Rural Labour Households this percentage was 13.32 (7.05% with land and 6.27% without land). The Agricultural Labour Households had still higher proportion i.e. 13.59% (7.02% with land and 6.57% without land) of the Scheduled Tribe Households.
Among the major states, the proportion of the Scheduled Tribes Households to All Rural Households was the highest in Orissa (27.48%). In the case of RLHs and ALHs, the highest proportion of the Scheduled Tribes households was noticed in Madhya Pradesh with 39.50% and 38.64% respectively. Excepting Gujarat (28.04%), Maharashtra (21.75%), Orissa (35.05%), and Rajasthan (35.06%) in all other major states the proportion of the Scheduled Tribe Rural Labour Households was less than the national percentage of 13.32.
The details of Other Backward Classes Households are presented in Statement 3.2(3). At All-India level, 36.90% (22.46% with land & 14.44% without land) of All Rural Households belonged to Other Backward Classes. In respect of Rural Labour Households and Agricultural Labour Households this percentage stood at 34.03 (14.53% with land and 19.50% without land) and 33.46 (15.30% with land & 18.16% without land) respectively.
Among the major states, the percentage of Other Backward Classes RLHs to total RLHs was the highest in Tamil Nadu (52.83%) followed by Kerala (51.46%). The same trend was observed in respect of Agricultural Labour Households also. The lowest percentage of households among these states was in West Bengal with 4.43% in the case of RLHs and 3.81% in the case of ALHs.
DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY SIZE OF LAND CULTIVATED :
The Statement 3.3(1) depicts average size of land cultivated alongwith percentage distribution of estimated number of all rural labour households by size of the land cultivated. At all-India level the average size of land cultivated (per cultivating household) was 0.18 Hectare during 1999-2000 as against 0.23 hectare in the 1993-94. Almost all the states reported a decline in the size of land cultivated over the last survey except Kerala where it increased from 0.04 hectare in 1993-94 to 0.07 hectare during 1999-2000. In all major states except Andhra Pradesh (0.20), Karnataka (0.28), Madhya Pradesh (0.35 hectare), Maharashtra (0.32 hectare), Orissa (0.21 hectare) and Rajasthan (0.42 hectare) the average size of land cultivated was found to be less than the national average of 0.18 hectare.
The percentage distribution of all Rural Labour Households by size of land cultivated revealed that at all-India level about 59% of households were landless and around 28 % were marginal farmers possessing cultivated land between 0.01 and 0.40 hectare. Only 0.50 % of the households possessed cultivated land above 2.01 hectares. Among the major states, the highest proportion of landless households was observed in Punjab (91.10%) followed by Haryana (81.90%).
As regards the Scheduled Castes RLHs, during 1999-2000 the average size of land cultivated at national level, was 0.13 hectare as against 0.17 hectare in the previous survey. In case of only four major states viz Andhra Pradesh (0.17 hectare to 0.19 hectare), Gujarat (0.09 hectare to 0.12 hectare), Kerala (0.02 hectare to 0.05 hectare) and Punjab (0.01 hectare to 0.02 hectare) the size of cultivated land showed a rising trend.
The percentage distribution of households by size of land showed that at all-India level, about 66% of the Scheduled Castes households were without cultivated land and around 25% were in possession of cultivated land in the range of 0.01 hectare to 0.40 hectare. Only 0.30 percent households possessed more than 2.01 hectares of cultivated land. Among major states, the highest percentage of landless households was found in Punjab (93%) followed by Haryana (88%) .
The details of average size of cultivated land and percentage distribution of households by size of land cultivated in respect of the Scheduled Tribes RLHs are shown in Statement 3.3(3). At all-India level, the average size of land cultivated was 0.26 hectare during 1999-2000 as compared to 0.35 hectare in 1993-94. The declining trend in average size of land, as compared to previous survey, was observed in all major states except Kerala and Tamil Nadu. About 47% of the households were land less at national level and around 30% were in possession of cultivated land in the range of 0.01 hectare to 0.40 hectare.
Among the Other Backward Classes households, the average size of land cultivated was 0.19 hectare at all-India level. The percentage of landless households was 57.30%. The marginal farmers with cultivated land in the range of 0.01 hectare and 0.40 hectare were 29%. At state level, the highest number of landless households was in Punjab (88.60%) followed by Haryana (79.10%) and Tamil Nadu (72.80%). The lowest number was in Rajasthan (42.40%).
Almost similar trend in land holding was observed in the case of ALHs. The details of land holding in respect of ALHs have been presented in Statements 3.4(1) to 3.4(4).
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